Scientific Outlook

Scientific Outlook

Written by Dr Narendra Dabholkar

Product and the Outlook of Science

Just look around and you will realize the state of affairs in our country. All of our villages have roads and there are plenty of vehicles that run on them carrying modern fertilizers and hybrid seeds. Tractors have reached villages and farmers in remote areas are capable of modern cultivation. Watching TV, we keep abreast of whatever happens anywhere in the world. We can contact a person anywhere on the telephone through the satellite. Science has made all this possible to the villagers. However, with all these facilities made available by science, the villagers in Maharashtra, slaughter, every year, 5 to 7 lakh goats and innumerable chicken in order to fulfill their superstitious vows.  Among them are a number of educated people who do not feel what they do is not in accord with their education.  It is a well-known fact that to be possessed is a psychic condition, a kind of mental illness; and yet in all Navaratri festivals, on full moon and new moon days and in village fairs, women are possessed by some deity and dance vigorously, oblivious of them. People worship these noisy humming and dancing women taking them to be the deities that possess them. They gleefully exploit the products of science but refuse to adopt the scientific outlook. We use the latest computer; and perform Satyanarayan pooja to inaugurate the computer service. Using the computer and the performing pooja are mutually inconsistent. But we do not mind it because we want to use science but not adopt scientific way of thinking.

Some people claim that this scientific outlook is not at all new to India; it has been there for ages. What existed in our country in the ancient past is, in fact, a matter for anyone to imagine the way he likes. A reference to the Pushpak Yan in the Ramayan means that we had aeroplanes and Brahmastra means the existence of atom bombs in those days. One does not need to refute these claims because it is more important to analyze why we are in such a dire state today if we had all these technologically advanced appliances in the past? Later on we can examine whether it is sheer imagination or things really existed as is claimed by some. But one thing is clear. We did not have any philosophy in the past that can be compared with what is called scientific outlook today. What we did have was rough estimates, assumptions and lengthy studies based on careful observations and genius of our people in the past. Whatever significant contribution India did make has been recognized by the world. The zero, for example, that has removed a big mathematical obstacle, is an Indian invention. It is attributed to Bhaskaracharya. Another scientist of acclaim, in those days was a chemist, Nagarjun. He invented the process of combining silver and gold with copper. Amarsinha classified the animal and plant kingdoms. Varahamiheer knew that the sun is a star and not a planet even in those days. Copernicus known for the Copernican revolution, that changed the center of the world from the earth to the sun, had said, ‘ the sun seems to be revolving round the earth, but in reality it is just the opposite of it. The sun is the center while the earth revolves round it.’ Aryabhatta initiated this concept in the 5th century, in India. We have honored him by naming our first satellite after him. (Incidentally Aryabhatta was not a Bhatt, i.e., a Brahmin but a Kshatreeya.) People ridiculed his idea. They argued, ‘If the earth revolves, as you say, how do we who, stand on it and perform all sorts of activities not fall off as the earth moves? Again how is it that the birds that leave their nests in the morning can find them on their return in the evening, when the earth has moved ahead?’ The point here is that we did have a process of critical thinking in the 5th and 6th century AD. This wisdom we had attained through observation, experience and discussion and were important and useful. However this process of acquiring knowledge cannot be called scientific outlook. In the next ten to twelve centuries the tradition of critical thinking also almost disappeared. A few good kings, eminent philosophers and littérateurs were born during this period, but no scientists. All debate centered on trivial matters such as who should and should not dine with whom; how should one wear the sacred and mundane dhoti; how many strands should there be in the sacred thread; should one eat onions and garlic during the four sacred months of the year; how drinking cow’s urine and brushing one’s face with its tail give you merit and emancipate your soul and so on. The rest of the world was following a different path. The Portuguese brought the revolutionary art of printing into Goa in 1550. It saved huge time that was required to copy manuscripts by hand. Spreading knowledge would have become very easy, but it took nearly three hundred years for this invention to reach the rest of India.

Scientific outlook was not developed in our society. Since it is essential to have such an outlook, Indira Gandhi amended the constitution. Till then only the rights of a citizen were mentioned in the constitution. With the amendment of 1976, along with the rights, a citizen’s duties were also included in the constitution. One of these duties is, ‘Every citizen should endeavor to spread scientific outlook, critical attitude and humanism in the society.’ The core content of the ‘new education policy’ of Rajiv Gandhi included ‘inculcation of scientific attitude’. Scientific attitude is an important part of our life. Is it something very serious, quite difficult to understand and meant only for a few people? No not at all. All of us use it in our normal life. ? No not at all. All of us use it in our normal life. If I want to go to Bhandara from Satara, to attend a function, I would ask a friend as to how to go about it. He tells me, there is a train from Satara that will take me to Bhandara. When I ask him, on what basis does he say so, he tells me that he remembers having seen it in his dream six months ago. Another friend told me that I would have to go to Pune and take a train from there. When I requested him to substantiate his information, he said, he had heard someone telling his friend, two months ago, at Pune railway station, that he went to Bhandara by a train. A third friend told me that I need not go to Pune since the Maharashtra express can take me directly to Bhandara. ‘How can he ascertain this information?’ I asked him. He replied that 15 days back he had been to Satara railway station where somebody was telling this to somebody else who wanted to go to Bhandara. A fourth friend told me that one has to go to Nagpur by the Maharashtra express, then go to the bus terminus and take a bus going to Bhandara that will reach me   there in about two and half hours. I asked him how can I be sure of what he told me, he said he had been to Bhandara for some work by this route only a couple of days back. Now out of these four friends whom should I rely on, the most and on whom the least? The least on the one who saw something in his dream, six months back; may be, a little on the one who heard someone telling about it to another person; I can rely on the third friend a little more who heard about it at the Satara railway station fifteen days ago and the most on the fourth friend who himself had been to Bhandara, just two days ago. We rely to the extent we have reliable evidence. The same practical criterion that we all commonly use is the basis of Scientific Outlook.
We rely to the extent we have reliable evidence. The same practical criterion that we all commonly use is the basis of Scientific Outlook.

How does one verify evidence? The process of scientific thinking is the method that is used for doing this. The factors that constitute this method are: Observation, Logic, Inference and Verification (this is of three types, viz., direct, repeated and universal), followed by experiment. What comes out of this is the scientific outlook. All the discoveries made so far are the result of some observation. We are taught in school about steam energy discovered by James Watt. The story goes thus. James Watt was engrossed in his thought. A kettle was boiling by his side. When enough steam gathered in the kettle its lid fell off. James put the lid back on the kettle. It fell off again after a little while. A few repetitions set him thinking about the reason for the lid coming off. He did not imagine a ghost in the kettle. He reasoned that since the lid comes off again and again, there must be something inside that pushes it out. This reasoning resulted in the discovery of energy contained in the steam, which led to the industrial revolution in Europe. Another example: we celebrate 28th February as National Science Day, because C.V. Raman’s discovery of ‘Raman effect’ was published in world-renowned magazine ‘Nature’. Later he won the Nobel Prize for it. How did he discover it? He was going to England in a liner. Every day he used to go to the deck and see the deep blue sky above and the deep blue sea below. He was curious to know why. Now he could have praised God for creating the beautiful blue sky above and the beautiful sea below. But, he did not do that. He started reasoning and discovered a novel scientific truth. Thus, scientific outlook starts from observing phenomena and asking oneself the question ‘why’.
Now one cannot expect to prove everything by observation. Suppose you have lost your way in a jungle in the evening. You need to reach some small settlement before night. Since you do not know where such a cluster of hutments can be found, you would not know which way to go. Then if you see some smoke going up at a dozen places by the side of a hill, you think this may be an indication of a settlement and you take the path towards it. What is the basis of your choice? You have not seen any men or a settlement or their fireplaces. But you know that wherever firewood is used for cooking, there is smoke and in the jungle, firewood is used for cooking. Evening is the time for cooking dinner and if food is being cooked in every hutment, there would be a dozen places from where the smoke can rise. So you deduce that there must be people living there and they are preparing their dinner. On the basis of this logic you proceed in that direction and your deduction turns out to be correct. Scientific outlook consists of firstly observation, secondly reasoning (or logic) where observation is not possible and thirdly inference. Let me explain the third constituent, inference. A friend of yours, who is a late riser, suggests that you accompany him for a walk at sunrise next morning. He promises to come to your house very early next day. Since you know he is incapable of doing this, would you argue with him, ‘Oh, you want to go for a walk at sunrise, but how are you sure that the Sun will rise tomorrow?’ No you won’t. But how does one know that the Sun is going to rise tomorrow? When we give appointments several days in advance, how do we know that those days are going to break on this earth? We deduce this from our knowledge that the Sun has been rising regularly in the morning for the last 460 crore years. It has not taken any leave at all. If it does that even for a day, it can cause a permanent “leave” for all the living things on earth. Since the Sun has been rising regularly so far, you infer that it will do so even tomorrow and plan to go for a walk in the morning. This is inference.
The next factor is verification. We have already seen that it consists of three parts: verification, repeated verification and universal verification. What is verification? Adi Shankaracharya had said, even if hundred wise men tell you that fire is cool, will you believe it? No, you will not. If those hundred wise men say, ‘not only do we say it, but it is also written in the book’, you would reply, ‘I do have a lot of respect for all of you but the direct evidence, my own experience, tells me that if I put my hand in fire it will burn.’ Verification by direct experience is an important part of scientific outlook. Now we will see what is repeated experience. Someone tells you that using a certain enchanted ring will secure employment for the user within one month.  You ask him to give you proof. He then says that he had used it and later his neighbor had used it and both got jobs within a month. What you should argue with him, is that if the same experience is repeated a large number of times, then we should make ten thousand such rings and distribute them among ten thousand unemployed youth. If they all get jobs within a month then we can accept that this ring does have some supernatural power of securing jobs for the unemployed. We cannot draw conclusions from just one or two examples. For drawing conclusions you need a very large number of such examples. This is the crux of the scientific outlook. Again this experience or verification has to be universal. It cannot be science without being universal. If you say that only the residents of that particular city will get jobs on using the ring, it will not be acceptable as scientific truth. If the ring really is capable of getting a job for the user, any body anywhere should get a job within a month on using it. If a medicine is developed for a particular disease, it will cure any person suffering from that disease any where in the world. When the law of gravitation was proved, it could be applied anywhere in the world to verify it. Thus scientific outlook is founded on direct verification that is repeated in very large number and is universally applicable.
Experiment is the last important constituent of scientific outlook. Anybody should be able to verify scientific truths by conducting required experiments. Water boils at 100 degrees centigrade. It means that water will boil at this temperature anywhere in the world, be it Bombay, Calcutta, London or Madras. If it boils at a lower or higher temperature at any place, you have another universal law that explains why and to what extent the boiling point of water rises or drops. It is not that water will boil at 90 degree centigrade in Mumbai and save fuel because the residents of Mumbai are very religious, while the residents of Moscow being atheist water boils there at 110degrees centigrade. One can verify it by experiment. So observation, the question ‘why so’ based on the observation, then reasoning or logic where observation is not possible, followed by inference and verification and lastly experiment are the steps that build the scientific outlook. There is a lot of value content too in the scientific outlook. It tells how a human being should look at life in general. The value content dwells in the method of scientific thinking.

Every body feels that with the spread of science education and modernization, superstitions will automatically disappear by and by. No special efforts are needed to do that. Say, for example from a totally dark room we cannot dig out the darkness. Just light a candle and the darkness will vanish. A petromax will make it brighter, while a tube light will make it brighter still. When the day breaks out and as the sun reaches the zenith the room is flooded with light from all sides. Darkness has no room there. Superstition means the darkness of ignorance. So it goes without saying that with the light of knowledge and science the darkness of ignorance i.e., superstition will simply melt away. Had this concept materialized, we would have been the happiest people for, in that case, such a huge movement would not have been necessary at all.

Dr. Narendra Dabholkar

 

Science on Wheels

Written by Deepak Girme

Vidnyan Bodh Vahini

MANS believes that people behave irrationally and are superstitious, because of wrong outdated beliefs held by them; because they are inculcated in their minds from childhood. And also because they do not have  proper education to rid them of theses beliefs.It was believed that with the teaching of science in  schools and colleges, people will be enlightened and will have a  scientific temper or a scientific, rational and logical view of leading their  lives. However this has not happened because the education policy makers in our country have sabotaged our educational system and the vested interests amongst these so called education experts, have seen to it, that our people remain mired in the bog of obscurantism and backward thinking. The so-called tall Pundits in our country are in fact tall only because they are amongst the dwarf masses created by them.
Historically education was denied to the majority of Indians because the so ordained lower casts were barred by the Vedic religion to be educated. This has handicapped the majority of the population. Till the arrival of the English and their education system they were preached into believing that it was a sin to learn to read or write.  It is not wrong to say that such people and their narrow self-seeking  interests are the main cause of the miserable condition that the majority of  we Indians are in today. In the past 400 years, the Renaissance  transformed the way of thinking in Europe contributing new inventions in science and technology, and changed the world. We Indians have  contributed nearly nothing substantial to this modern way of life. If this scenario continues we will be amongst the most backward countries in the world. A Country progresses by good quality education of the majority of its people, and not of a few affluent people who manage to monopolize  education, land holdings, trade and even the authority of the state. The ignorant masses should not be and cannot be just wished away or be ignored any longer.
According to the Constitution of India,-- it is the duty of every citizen of India to promote scientific temper, a spirit of inquiry and humanism.
MANS believes that it should do its duty as laid out in the Constitution of India. MANS is already doing a lot of work to promote scientific temper and  scientific attitude amongst the people of Maharashtra.  But ANS feels  that it will be able to do much more in this direction if they had better  facilities and tools to help them in this endeavor.

After a study of this problem of mass ignorance, it was decided that instead of constructing a permanent educational center, it would be better to start with a mobile unit, that could reach the remote areas where the most uneducated and economically deprived people live.  Thus was born the idea of a mobile science van or   Vidnyan Bodh Vahini. The expenditure on the special purpose vehicle was borne  by Rotary Club in US and its counterpart in Jalgaon.
This mobile van, ‘a science classroom on wheels’, reaches young students and old people living in slums, villages and hamlets located in remote areas.

The Van was  equipped with the following:


* Library containing books and posters on superstition eradication, elementary science, environment, health etc.
* Telescope.
* Audio and video CDs DVDs on science, anti-superstition views, etc.
* Audio equipment like CD player, amplifier, loudspeaker, microphone
* Video equipment like,video CD/DVD player, video projector, screen etc.

Program Implementation

A tour program of ´Vidnyan Bodh Vahini´ was planned well in advance by contacting the interested schools, villages. MANS activists visit the places as per plan. Live demos, and poster exhibitions and hands on experience of telescope, film shows, lecture-cum -miracle demo etc are the main programs through which MANS spreads its message about anti-superstition and tries to inculcate Scientific Temper or Outlook amongst the people.

The Vidnyan Bodh Vahini program reached hundreds of schools and enlightened the lives of thousands of students and teachers in rural and urban Maharashtra it was discontinued because of running cost due to high cost of fuel, and constant repairs to the vehicle due to bad roads in rural Maharashtra.

A new program is planned and a smaller Jeep type or SUV type vehicle with a modified body will be used to restart this program.

Sky Gazing

Written by Administrator

To some extent the urban population has become knowledgeable thanks to media, though they too are victims of different kinds of high-tech superstitions. However it has become pertinent to make rural population in general and rural children in particular aware of basic scientific principles which will prevent extravagant expenditure on superstitions. The rural population, which is a mix of Scheduled Casts and Scheduled Tribes and women, needs additional efforts from all concerned to impart knowledge in science and tecnology.

After realising this fact, ANS has made special efforts to concentrate on rural areas to eradicate prevailing superstitions through lectures, demonstrations and other peaceful means without hurting their sensitivities. The knowledgeable few in the villages welcome the efforts of ANS and encourages to conduct the activities in spite of their poverty and religious and traditional life style. Barring a few cities and townships, Maharashtra is still a backward state as far as scientific temperaments are concerned. The tribal districts still believe in witch craft and human sacrifice. Village women are targeted for any calamity and have to pay the price. All these things are preventable and may not need huge funds but sincere and continuous efforts of dedicated voluntary organisations.

During the implementation of Vidnyan Bodh Vahini program, it was experienced that mere a single telescope is not able to serve the purpose of sky-gazing which is very essential to eradicate superstitions like astrology, apprehension about zodiac signs, auspicious timings based on planetary movements, fatalism etc. The preliminary knowledge of origin and nature of universe, cosmology, astronomy etc is a foundation to scientific attitude. As such a need was felt to have some sort of planetarium which can reach comparatively larger audience. ANS activists contacted IUCAA and were glad to borrow their equipment for a smaller duration to assess its efficacy. A pilot program was conducted in Aurangabad. The demonstration was very successful and students were very enthusiastic about the whole show.

As such ANS has planned a program of Nabhangan Darshan (Sky Show) show for next two years by carrying the portable planetarium in the vehicle made available to ANS and reach at least 200 students of 8th and 9th class per day. The project proposal has been made to acquire portable planetarium developed by National council of Science Museum (NCSM), Kolkata and demonstrate the star and planet details through planetarium.


It has been planned to carry the inflatable planetarium to a nodal school in that area which is located centrally of a village cluster. The nodal school will contact the neighbouring schools to depute students to attend the exhibition. The demo will be conducted in batches of 30 minutes for 20 students at a time from each class. Permission will be sought from education authority for releasing the students during school working hours for a specified period to attend the demo. Thus within 5 working hours 200 students can avail the opportunity to visit planetarium per day. If the strength is not adequate from that particular school, neighboring school students will be invited. The additional time available with students after/before demonstration will be utilised for poster exhibition quiz and elocution competition on which additional details about Universe are made available. The trained narrators will explain the content available inside the planetarium to these students. The demo will cover various aspects of astronomy, cosmology, planet positions, star positions, and their relevance to day-to-day life.

 

Science Awareness Project

Written by Administrator

Though the effect of science and technology is experienced in every day life of each and every person, there appears to be a very big gap between scientifically literate and the common person on the road on acquiring scientific attitude and awareness. Even in the elite and highly educated group, it is doubtful how many of them have scientific attitude in correct sense. Though the constitution stipulates the spread of scientific attitude and temperament as one of the foremost duties of every citizen in India, the pace at which this duty is being fulfilled is at snail’s speed and sometimes in reverse direction due to vested interests at certain levels. While planning to inculcate scientific attitude in the society, which will certainly eradicate superstitions, it became necessary to concentrate our efforts among school going children who generally acquire the traditions and rituals followed blindly by their parents. If it is possible to inculcate scientific awareness at that tender age by some means, the young will be aware of the importance of scientific attitude throughout their life. Formal education as planned by our educationists for primary and secondary education is just not sufficient to inculcate scientific attitude. As such Maharashtra Andhasraddha Nirmoolan Samiti (ANS) planned to educate students informally by appealing to the interested students to study superstitions and scientific reasoning behind the so-called miracles.

We have realized that just delivering lectures and performing demonstrations would not be adequate enough specially when audience is full of students. It was also learnt that the assimilation of knowledge is generally through listening to the lectures, self study, discussions with teachers and friends and appearing for examination to evaluate comprehension. To implement the scheme effectively, it became necessary that teachers should be the nodal point. As such   a curriculum was  formulated to include various related topics and for various age groups and accordingly programs were planned to train teachers so that they in turn can teach the subjects related to scientific attitude during extra hours and on holidays. Teachers were also entrusted the task of conducting the examination to assess assimilating abilities of students and successful candidates were awarded certificates.

The course has been divided into three levels:

Vaidnanik Janiva Parichay (Introduction to Awareness of Science) for students studying in fourth to seventh class. This is an introductory course, which enables students to get acquainted with fundamentals of superstitions and of scientific temper.

Vaidnanik Janiva Shodh (Search of Awareness in Science)is for students studying in eighth to tenth class. During this course, in-depth study of various subjects will be completed.

Satya Shodh Prabodh (Awareness and Search of Truth)  is for college going students. It includes the study of theoratical topics like rationalism, secularism, mental disorders etc.

The syllabus has been arranged in such a way that it can be covered in about 10 periods of 30 minute each. If a special camp is arranged the syllabus can be completed within a day. Generally 20 minutes are spent on explanation of the topic assigned and 10 minute for question - answer and discussions. The subjects covered during these courses are as under:

• Scientific Attitude

• Faith and Blind faith

• Mental disorder and possible remedies

• Astronomy and Astrology

• Study of snakes and remedies on snakebites

• Scientific explanations about miracles, poltergeist and hypnotism

• Exposure of God men, Babas Matajis etc.

• Poltergeist (Bhanamati)

• Works of social reformers

• Rationalism

• De-addiction

For example the subject ‘scientific attitude’ includes following topics:

• Necessity of the removal of blind belief

• The distinguishing factors between scientific literacy and scientific attitude

• Methodology to check evidence

• Scientific thinking that includes freedom, fearlessness and humbleness

• Dangers of glorification of great persons.

• The origins and meaning of prevailing customs, traditions and rituals.

• Moral values and scientific attitude.

We arranges teachers training camps with the due permission of concerned educational officer in all district place and major towns. Teachers can avail the opportunity and attendance of training camp is considered as working day for teachers. MANS activists and experts in the field will outline the methodology of conducting the course and examinations, use of course material etc. Teachers participate in post lecture discussions and clarifications are sought. In fact ANS has compiled the questions that are generally being asked by the audience, which is also applicable to students also. These training camps benefit teachers and in fact some of them serve as activists and/or contact persons for MANS. We have trained more than 50,000 teachers and more than 500,000  students have undergone various courses.

We have observed marked change in the students attending the course. A question like “mention three superstitions followed in house” may trigger their inquisitiveness. Children are never passive in this regard. After realization they go out of their way to protest and are not afraid of expressing their displeasure frankly and openly. This in turn influences parents to take corrective measures. As the saying goes “ there are no problematic children but there are problematic parents’. ANS can cite hundred of examples where children protested against illogical and unscientific behavior of their parents; thanks to the courses undergone by students. During the euphoria of milk drinking by Ganesh on 21 Sept. 95, it was the students in Maharashtra who protested vehemently about the whole episode. Similar protest was observed even during the eclipse. The girls who had attended the course start protesting against rituals, which encourage gender discrimination. It is not only students who are benefited by this course but also the teachers who conduct them. Age-old practice of observing fast, believing in astrological predictions, expensive, outdated and irrelevant ceremonies were abandoned by most of the teachers.

To sum up we have oticed the following changes:

• Influence of Babas, Matas etc is reduced

• Children started showing keen interest in measures of reform

• Participation of students in exposing witchcraft, haunting and casting of spells

• Girls are becoming bold enough to question rituals of gender inequality

• Course material is used as a reference guide during discussions with staunch believers of superstitions

• Students advice their juniors and friends to undergo the course

• Students show keen interest in the activities and events happening in the surroundings

• Students want more material to enhance their knowledge

• Training one child in a family is equivalent to training the full family and its neighbourhood.

MANS has followed the principle of “Science and Technology at your doorsteps” rather than making students come to a centralized urban place as has been done in many of the `not so successful’ projects. This is one example, which has a potential to replicate all over India instead of confining to Marathi speaking area. In fact MANS is ready to extend its assistance to any dedicated team from other states that is prepared to come forward and work hard to conduct such program. This will hasten the process of inculcating scientific attitude among millions of our students.

Scientific Temper

Written by Administrator

“It is Science alone that can solve the problems of hunger and poverty, in-sanitation and illiteracy, of superstition and deadening customs and tradition, of vast resources running waste, of a rich country inhabited by the starving people. Who indeed could afford to ignore Science today? At every turn we have to seek its aid.  The future belongs to Science and to those who make Friends with Science.”

- Jawaharlal Nehru


Almost half a century over these memorable words were spoken by the Nation's visionary first Prime Minister, truth is that of this "Rich Country" is still inhabited, if not by "starving people" - thanks to the Green Revolution - but by people shackled by the bands of " Superstitions and deadening custom and tradition" especially in the living core of this great sub-continent spread over more than 700 000 villages and habitats.Unless these shackles are broken, Nehru's vision of progress through making friendship with science, Science will still remain as a toy for the elite and exploiting tool for a few.

Spread of scientific temper in society is much more than the spread of science or technology.

Scientific temper is neither a knowledge about information or facts though it promotes knowledge, nor is it rationalism although it promotes rational thinking.

It is something more.
Scientific temper is an attitude of mind which calls for a particular outlook and pattern of behaviour.

It is of universal applicability and has to permeate through our society as the dominant value system powerfully influencing the way we think and approach our problems - political, social, economic, cultural and educational.

Scientific Temper involves the acceptance, amongst others, of the following premises:

*that the method of science provides a viable method of acquiring knowledge;

*that human problems can be understood and solved in terms of knowledge gained through the application of the method of science;

*that the fullest use of the method of science in everyday life and in every aspect of human endeavour from ethics to politics and economics, is essential for ensuring human survival and progress; and


*that one should accept knowledge gained through the application of the method of science as the closest
approximation to truth at that time, and question what is incompatible with such knowledge; and that one should from time to time re-examine that basic foundation of contemporary knowledge.


The method of science, therefore, constitutes a regenerative process for collecting information and processing the collected information to create meaningful patterns leading to an ordered understanding of nature of man himself, his natural and social environment. In this sense, the method of science encompasses all aspects of communicable human knowledge and cuts across all artificial compartmentalisation like natural science, social science, applied sciences, etc.

Keeping this in view MANS undertakes many programs to promote scientific attitude especially among the rural population  MANS has a vision to promote scientific attitude in all sections of the society.




 

Page 2 of 2

«StartPrev12NextEnd»

On Social Media